Texture isn’t just limited to stitches.
Here are examples of a simple chequered motif (the Mirror Mirror Scarf), in one I’ve used a silk ribbon yarn paired with a fine angora luxury yarn used triple. The angora yarn was tripled as I knit (by the Navaho method).
In the one on the right, I used Noro Kureyon and a fluffy novelty yarn with limited colour variation. I could have further enhanced the effect of the fluff by working those sections in reverse stocking stitch.
I have also tried using a ladder yarn against a plain background with good results. A fine (or even transparent) yarn can be supported with a backing of a heavier yarn.